After almost three centuries of colonialism, freedom winds began to blow throughout the Americas at the end of the 18th century with the United States of America Independence Revolution. Inspired by the Enlightenment philosophy, that later led to the French Revolution, and provoked by the absolutist European imperialism, North American settlers faced and defeated the British Crown in 1783.
After the French Revolution, it was disappointing for the world, especially for Simon Bolivar, to learn about the imperialist ambition of Napoleon. Napoleon invaded Spain in 1806 in an effort to finish with the Bourbon dynasty. Immediately afterwards Bolivar started an independent campaign in Venezuela. On the other side, England took advantage of the occasion to try to invade the Spanish colony of La Plata (now Argentina) twice, in 1806 and 1807.
By having expelled the invasion without much help from the usurped Spanish Crown, La Plata inhabitants conceived a plan for an independent country and General San Martin started another independent campaign from South. By 1820 Bolivar and San Martin together achieved the independence of all Spanish colonies in South America.
In Mexico the rebellion started just as a demonstration against the Napoleonic invasion, however little by little it began to acquire revolutionary overtone which claimed a new nation arising. Among educated creole there were arguments about who had the authority and sovereignty on the colony if the metropolis was invaded, and before 1810 many conspiracies were broken up.
The Conspiracy of Queretaro, leaded by Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla, proposed to keep loyalty to the crown of Fernando VII, the creation of a sovereign New Spanish government and ignore the Viceroy by then. When their discovered plans had to be brought forward, early in the morning of September 16, Miguel Hidalgo urged natives and mestizos, as well as creole, to rise arms up.
The fight was long and it wasn't til 1815 with Jose Maria Morelos as a leader, that war took the path to the creation of a new independent nation. However, they still didn't know what kind of government would make the eventual nation thrive. Without having expelled the Spanish, Conservatives and Liberals started to fight each other. When the main leaders of the revolution were killed, spirits went down but the energy of Iturbide, a Conservative, made the dream come true in august, 1821.